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Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Oct;14(10):2817-23. Epub 2007 Aug 10.

Long term outcome and prognostic factors for large hepatocellular carcinoma (10 cm or more) after surgical resection.

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Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Asian Centre for Liver Diseases and Transplantation, Singapore, Singapore.



Surgical resection is the standard treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of surgery in treatment of large tumors (10 cm or more) is controversial. We have analyzed, in a single centre, the long-term outcome associated with surgical resection in patients with such large tumors.


We retrospectively investigated 166 patients who had undergone surgical resection between July 1995 and December 2006 because of large (10 cm or more) HCC. Survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses.


Of the 166 patients evaluated, 80% were associated with viral hepatitis and 48.2% had cirrhosis. The majority of patients underwent a major hepatectomy (48.2% had four or more segments resected and 9% had additional organ resection). The postoperative mortality was 3%. The median survival in our study was 20 months, with an actuarial 5-year and 10-year overall survival of 28.6% and 25.6%, respectively. Of these patients, 60% had additional treatment in the form of transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation or both. On multivariate analysis, vascular invasion (P < 0.001), cirrhosis (P = 0.028), and satellite lesions/multicentricity (P = 0.006) were significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The patients who had none of these three risk factors had 5-year and 10-year overall survivals of 57.7% each, compared with 22.5% and 19.3%, respectively, for those with at least one risk factor (P < 0.001).


Surgical resection for those with large HCC can be safely performed with a reasonable long-term survival. For tumors with poor prognostic factors, there is a pressing need for effective adjuvant therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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