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Phys Rev Lett. 2007 Jun 15;98(24):247602. Epub 2007 Jun 14.

Charge-stripe order in the electronic ferroelectric LuFe2O4.

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1
Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

The structural features of the charge ordering states in LuFe(2)O(4) are characterized by in situ cooling transmission electron microscopy observations from 300 K down to 20 K. Two distinctive structural modulations, a major q1=(1/3,1/3,2) and a weak q2 = q1/10+(0,0,3/2), have been well determined at the temperature of approximately 20 K. Systematic analysis demonstrates that the charges at low temperatures are well crystallized in a charge-stripe phase, in which the charge-density wave behavior in a nonsinusoidal fashion results in elemental electric dipoles for ferroelectricity. It is also noted that the charge ordering and ferroelectric domains often change markedly with lowering temperatures and yield a rich variety of structural phenomena.

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