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Phys Rev Lett. 2007 May 11;98(19):197402. Epub 2007 May 10.

Single-step triplet-triplet annihilation: an intrinsic limit for the high brightness efficiency of phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes.

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Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.


We investigate triplet-triplet annihilation in molecular host-guest systems where triplets are localized on spatially separated guest molecules. Our results indicate that the dominant mechanism of annihilation is single-step long-range (Förster-type) energy transfer between two excited guests. This mechanism leads to a fundamental limit for the efficiency of phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes at high luminance. Our model is confirmed by photoluminescence decay experiments on 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphine platinum as guest in a host matrix of 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl.

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