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J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 28;282(39):28408-18. Epub 2007 Aug 3.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress TF-kappaB-dependent agonist-driven tissue factor expression in endothelial cells and monocytes.

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Medicine Department and Vascular Biology Center, University of Minnesota, Minnealpoles, Minnesota 55455, USA.


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as trichostatin A (TSA), can regulate gene expression by promoting acetylation of histones and transcription factors. Human tissue factor (TF) expression is partly governed by a unique, NF-kappaB-related "TF-kappaB" promoter binding site. We find that TSA and four other HDACi (apicidin, MS-275, sodium butyrate, and valproic acid) all inhibit by approximately 90% TF activity and protein level induction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by the physiologic agonists tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1beta, lipopolysaccharide, and HOSCN without affecting expression of the NF-kappaB-regulated adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and E-selectin. TSA and butyrate also blunt TF induction approximately 50% in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vivo in thioglycolate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, TSA attenuates by approximately 70% TNF-alpha stimulation of TF mRNA transcription without affecting that of ICAM-1. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay analyses, TNF-alpha and lipopolysaccharide induce strong p65/p50 and p65/c-Rel heterodimer binding to both NF-kappaB and TF-kappaB probes. TSA nearly abolishes TF-kappaB binding without affecting NF-kappaB binding. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and a promoter-luciferase reporter system confirm that TSA inhibits TF-kappaB but not NF-kappaB activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and small interfering RNA inhibitor studies demonstrate that HDAC3 plays a significant role in TNF-alpha-mediated TF induction. Thus, HDACi transcriptionally inhibit agonist-induced TF expression in endothelial cells and monocytes by a TF-kappaB- and HDAC3-dependent mechanism. We conclude that histone deacetylases, particularly HDAC3, play a hitherto unsuspected role in regulating TF expression and raise the possibility that HDACi might be a novel therapy for thrombotic disorders.

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