Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 Feb;25(2):135-43. Epub 2007 Aug 2.

Transoesophageal echocardiography accurately detects cardiac output variation: a prospective comparison with thermodilution in cardiac surgery.

Author information

Universidad de Chile, Hospital Clínico y Facultad de Medicina, Anestesiología, Santiago, Chile.



Intraoperative Doppler ultrasound can be used to measure cardiac output by transoesophageal echocardiography. Recently, its reliability, when compared to the thermodilution technique, has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative changes in cardiac output measured by echo-Doppler and by thermodilution in cardiac surgery. We also assessed the agreement between the techniques.


Fifty cardiac surgical patients (38 male, 12 female, mean age of 63.4 +/- 14.3 yr) were prospectively included after approval by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Cardiac output was assessed by thermodilution, with 10 mL saline at 12 degrees C, and simultaneously and blindly by echo-Doppler in deep transgastric view with pulsed wave Doppler at the level of the left ventricular outflow tract. Matched thermodilution cardiac output and echo-Doppler cardiac output measurements were taken three times at the end of expiration, both pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass.


Echo-Doppler measurements were obtained in 44 patients (88%). In three patients, Doppler recordings could not be obtained adequately, and three developed left ventricular outflow tract obstruction after bypass. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 0.015 L min(-1), with narrow limits of agreement (-1.21 to 1.22 L min(-1)) and 29.1% error. Echo-Doppler was accurate (92% sensitivity and 71% specificity, P = 0.008 by receiver operating characteristic curves) for detecting more than 10% of change in thermodilution cardiac output. There were no complications related to the study.


The agreement between cardiac output by echo-Doppler and by thermodilution is clinically acceptable and transoesophageal echocardiography is a reliable tool to assess significant cardiac output changes in a population of selected patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center