Activity of an example neuron in the ACCd during the matching pennies task. Each pair of small panels displays the spike density functions estimated relative to the time of target onset (left panels) or feedback onset (right panels). They were estimated separately according to the animal’s choice (top), the computer’s choice (middle), or reward (bottom) in the current trial (Trial Lag = 0) or according to the corresponding variables in three previous trials (Trial Lag = 1, 2, or 3). Purple (black) lines correspond to the activity associated with rightward (leftward) choices (top and middle) or rewarded (unrewarded) trials (bottom). Circles show the regression coefficients from a multiple linear regression model, which was performed separately for each time bin. Filled circles indicate the coefficients significantly different from zero (t-test, p < 0.05). The dotted vertical lines in the left panels correspond to the onset of fore-period, and the gray background the delay (left panels) or feedback (right panels) period.

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