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J Med Primatol. 2007 Aug;36(4-5):238-43.

Direct stringency comparison of two macaque models (single-high vs. repeat-low) for mucosal HIV transmission using an identical anti-HIV chemoprophylaxis intervention.

Author information

1
Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, NCHHSTP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In our previous work, oral chemoprophylaxis with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) provided partial protection in rhesus macaques against repeated low-dose (RL) intrarectal SHIV162p3 exposure.

METHODS:

Here, we make a direct comparison of these previous findings with data generated using a single high (SH)-dose challenge strategy.

RESULTS:

All 5 (100%) control macaques were infected after a SH challenge and only three of five (60%) TDF-treated macaques became infected. The remaining two TDF-treated macaques remained virus-negative and were susceptible to virus infection upon re-challenge in the absence of oral TDF. Thus, two of five (40%) TDF-treated macaques were protected by the pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis regimen. By comparison with the RL challenge system, only one of four (25%) of TDF-treated macaques were protected from infection, whereas four of four (100%) control macaques became infected using RL challenges.

CONCLUSION:

Taken together, these findings indicate that the stringency of the RL challenge model for testing antiretroviral interventions is not lower and possibly greater than that of the SH challenge model.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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