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Glycoconj J. 2007 Dec;24(9):573-82. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12 and IFN-gamma in murine peritoneal macrophages on treatment with wheat germ agglutinin in vitro: involvement of tyrosine kinase pathways.

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School of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.


Treatment of macrophages with various doses of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for different time intervals resulted in enhanced expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The maximum expressions were observed at 24 h with 100 ng/ml of WGA. Enhanced transcription of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma was observed at 16 h of WGA treatment by RT-PCR. Pharmacological inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, PI3 kinase, protein kinase C, p42/44, p38, JNK and intracellular calcium immobilizing agent down regulated the WGA induced expression of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12 and IFN-gamma. Maximum protein tyrosine kinase activity in macrophages was seen at 5 min of WGA treatment. Maximum cytosolic Ca++ was observed at 10 min of WGA treatment. WGA treated macrophages showed maximum activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and PI3 kinase at 10 min, p42/44, p38 at 15 min and JNK at 30 min. Transcription factor ELK1 was activated at 60 min and IêB, c-Fos and c-Jun at 30 min of WGA treatment. The pharmacological inhibitors were also used to check the cascade of activation of tyrosine kinase, PKC, PI3 kinase, p42/44, p38, JNK and release of calcium from intracellular storage to sort out the signal pathways involved in the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma by macrophages on treatment with WGA in vitro.

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