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J Adolesc Health. 2007 Aug;41(2):126-31.

Relationship of adolescent gynecomastia with varicocele and somatometric parameters: a cross-sectional study in 6200 healthy boys.

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Clinical Center for Endocrinology, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria.



To evaluate the relationship of gynecomastia with varicocele and somatometric parameters in otherwise clinically healthy boys.


The relationship between gynecomastia and somatometric parameters was examined with 6200 clinically healthy boys aged 0-19 years of different socioeconomic backgrounds in various schools, kindergartens, and childcare centers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the prevalence of gynecomastia (>or=1cm) in relation to height, weight, testicular volume, penile length and circumference, age, pubic hair Tanner stage, and residential status.


Pubic hair Tanner stages 3 and 4 had the highest incidence of gynecomastia. Gynecomastia was found only in boys more than 10 years old and its prevalence in the age group of 10-19 years (n = 3082) was 3.93 %. In boys 10-13 years old, gynecomastia was positively correlated with varicocele, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-4.1). For the age at which gynecomastia was most prevalent (group aged 12-14 years), the adjusted OR of gynecomastia occurring in boys with varicocele, using the Cochran-Mantel-Hasenzel method of adjusting for age was 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1-3.4). Gynecomastia was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI). In addition, it was weakly correlated with testicular volume, positively in age group 10-13 years and negatively in those 14-19 years. However no relationship was found between gynecomastia and penis size, urban/rural status, and sea level of residence.


Adolescent gynecomastia is a mid-puberty event. It is significantly associated with varicocele and somatometric parameters including BMI and testicular volume.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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