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Muscle Nerve. 2007 Nov;36(5):615-27.

Clinical and immunological spectrum of the Miller Fisher syndrome.

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Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, 169608 Singapore.


The Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), characterized by ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia, was first recognized as a distinct clinical entity in 1956. MFS is mostly an acute, self-limiting condition, but there is anecdotal evidence of benefit with immunotherapy. Pathological data remain scarce. MFS can be associated with infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. Radiological findings have suggested both central and peripheral involvement. The anti-GQ1b IgG antibody titer is most commonly elevated in MFS, but may also be increased in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). Molecular mimicry, particularly in relation to antecedent Campylobacter jejuni and Hemophilus influenzae infections, is likely the predominant pathogenic mechanism, but the roles of other biological factors remain to be established. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of neuromuscular transmission defects in association with anti-GQ1b IgG antibody, both in vitro and in vivo. Collective findings from clinical, radiological, immunological, and electrophysiological techniques have helped to define MFS, GBS, and BBE as major disorders within the proposed spectrum of anti-GQ1b IgG antibody syndrome.

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