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Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Aug;157(2):233-8.

A novel mutation in the accessory DNA-binding domain of human steroidogenic factor 1 causes XY gonadal dysgenesis without adrenal insufficiency.

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Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.



Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), officially designated NR5A1, is a nuclear receptor that plays key roles in endocrine development and function. Previous reports of human SF1 mutations revealed a spectrum of phenotypes affecting adrenal function and/or gonadal development and sex differentiation. We present the clinical phenotype and functional effects of a novel SF1 mutation.


The patient is a 22-year-old 46, XY Japanese patient who presented with dysgenetic testes, atrophic vasa deferentia and epididymides, lack of Müllerian structures, and clitoromegaly. Endocrine studies revealed normal adrenal function.


Analysis of the SF1 gene revealed compound heterozygosity for a previously described p.G146A polymorphism and a novel missense mutation (p.R84C) in the accessory DNA-binding domain. The father carried the p.G146A polymorphism and the mother had the p.R84C mutation; both were clinically and reproductively normal. Functional studies demonstrated that the p.R84C SF1 had normal nuclear localization but decreased DNA-binding affinity and transcriptional activity compared with wild-type SF1; it did not exhibit any dominant negative activity.


These results describe the human phenotype that results from compound heterozygosity of the p.G146A polymorphism and a novel p.R84C mutation of SF1, thereby extending the spectrum of human SF1 mutations that impair testis development and sex differentiation in a sex-limited manner while preserving normal adrenal function.

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