Send to

Choose Destination
Ren Fail. 2007;29(5):607-14.

Evaluation of criteria for the diagnosis of Balkan endemic nephropathy.

Author information

Academy of Medical Science, Belgrade, Serbia. mamatata@eunet.yu



The diagnosis of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is often made using Danilovic's criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of Danilovic's criteria and several additional indices.


The study included 19 BEN patients, 23 BEN-suspected patients, 34 patients with other kidney diseases, and 23 healthy controls. The sensitivity and specificity of Danilovic's criteria was calculated, and these criteria, in addition to age, sex, blood pressure, creatinine clearance, glucosuria, urine osmolality, alkaline phosphatase, alpha 1-microglobulin, fractional sodium excretion, tubular phosphate reabsorption, kidney length, and volume, were combined in a logistic regression.


All examined persons were from a BEN-affected village (criterion 1), and all BEN, BEN-suspected patients, and 12/23 healthy controls were from BEN families (criterion 2). None of the remaining Danilovic's criteria was found in the healthy controls. The prevalence of proteinuria, low specific gravity, and anemia (criteria 3-5) differed insignificantly among the patient groups. Azotemia and shrunken kidney (criteria 6 and 7) were significantly more frequent in BEN than in other patients. Only proteinuria showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating BEN and BEN-suspected patients from healthy persons, but no criteria differentiated BEN or BEN-suspected from other kidney diseases. Proteinuria is a significant predictor of both BEN and BEN-suspected vs. healthy persons, and alpha 1-microglobulinuria is a significant predictor of BEN vs. other kidney diseases.


Danilovic's criteria enabled a diagnosis of BEN only in chronic renal failure and differential diagnosis between BEN and healthy persons but not between BEN and other kidney diseases. Out of the examined indices of proximal tubular disorders, only alpha 1-microglobulinuria significantly discriminated BEN from other kidney diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center