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Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Oct;22(10):1727-34. Epub 2007 Jul 26.

Outcome of isolated antenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective cohort study.

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Pediatric Nephrourology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Das Clinicas, Federal University Of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.


The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of infants with antenatal hydronephrosis. Between May 1999 and June 2006, all patients diagnosed with isolated fetal renal pelvic dilatation (RPD) were prospectively followed. The events of interest were: presence of uropathy, need for surgical intervention, RPD resolution, urinary tract infection (UTI), and hypertension. RPD was classified as mild (5-9.9 mm), moderate (10-14.9 mm) or severe (>or=15 mm). A total of 192 patients was included in the analysis; 114 were assigned to the group of non-significant findings (59.4%) and 78 to the group of significant uropathy (40.6%). Of 89 patients with mild dilatation, 16 (18%) presented uropathy. Median follow-up time was 24 months. Twenty-seven patients (15%) required surgical intervention. During follow-up, UTI occurred in 27 (14%) children. Of 89 patients with mild dilatation, seven (7.8%) presented UTI during follow-up. Renal function, blood pressure, and somatic growth were within normal range at last visit. The majority of patients with mild fetal RPD have no significant findings during infancy. Nevertheless, our prospective study has shown that 18% of these patients presented uropathy and 7.8% had UTI during a medium-term follow-up time. Our findings suggested that, in contrast to patients with moderate/severe RPD, infants with mild RPD do not require invasive diagnostic procedures but need strict clinical surveillance for UTI and progression of RPD.

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