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Curr Opin Immunol. 2007 Aug;19(4):430-4. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

Immune system recognition of Trypanosoma cruzi.

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Center for Tropical & Emerging Global Diseases and Department of Cellular Biology, Coverdell Center for Biomedical Research, 500 D.W. Brooks Drive, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.


Innate and adaptive cellular immune recognition is crucial for control of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi triggers both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent innate activation pathways in macrophages and dendritic cells. TLR-2 and TLR-9 recognize GPI anchors and parasite DNA, respectively; however other, as yet undefined receptors and ligands, also appear to be involved in innate recognition. CD8(+) T cells distinguish T. cruzi-infected host cells primarily via robust recognition of MHC-associated peptide epitopes from the large and highly diverse trans-sialidase family of surface proteins. To date there has been minimal investigation of linkages between innate immune recognition in vivo and the generation of adaptive cellular immune responses.

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