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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 31;104(31):12673-8. Epub 2007 Jul 23.

Single A326G mutation converts human CYP24A1 from 25-OH-D3-24-hydroxylase into -23-hydroxylase, generating 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3-26,23-lactone.

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Department of Biochemistry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.


Studies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) have demonstrated that it is a bifunctional enzyme capable of the 24-hydroxylation of 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3), leading to the excretory form, calcitroic acid, and 23-hydroxylation, culminating in 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-26,23-lactone. The degree to which CYP24A1 performs either 23- or 24-hydroxylation is species-dependent. In this paper, we show that the human enzyme that predominantly 24-hydroxylates its substrate differs from the opossum enzyme that 23-hydroxylates it at only a limited number of amino acid residues. Mutagenesis of the human form at a single substrate-binding residue (A326G) dramatically changes the regioselectivity of the enzyme from a 24-hydroxylase to a 23-hydroxylase, whereas other modifications have no effect. Ala-326 is located in the I-helix, close to the terminus of the docked 25-hydroxylated side chain in a CYP24A1 homology model, a result that we interpret indicates that substitution of a glycine at 326 provides extra space for the side chain of the substrate to move deeper into the pocket and place it in a optimal stereochemical position for 23-hydroxylation. We discuss the physiological ramifications of these results for species possessing the A326G substitution, as well as implications for optimal vitamin D analog design.

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