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Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug;105(2):412-8.

Continuous oximetry/capnometry monitoring reveals frequent desaturation and bradypnea during patient-controlled analgesia.

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1
Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. overdykf@musc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The most serious complication of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is respiratory depression (RD). The incidence of RD in the literature is derived from intermittent sampling of pulse oximetry (Spo(2)) and respiratory rate and defined as a deviation below an arbitrary threshold.

METHODS:

We monitored postsurgical patients in a hospital ward receiving morphine or meperidine PCA with continuous oximetry and capnography. Nurses responding to audible monitor bedside alarms documented respiratory status and interventions.

RESULTS:

A total of 178 patients were included in the analysis, 12% and 41% of whom had episodes of desaturation (Spo(2) <90%) and bradypnea (respiratory rate <10) lasting 3 min or more. One patient required "rescue" with positive pressure ventilation, and none required naloxone. Patients over 65 years of age and the morbidly obese were at greater risk for desaturation. Patients over 65 years of age were also more likely to have bradypnea, whereas the morbidly obese and patients receiving continuous infusions were less likely to have bradypnea.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our incidence of RD by bradypnea is significantly higher than the 1%-2% incidence in the literature, using the same threshold criteria but more stringent duration criteria, while our incidence of RD based on desaturation is consistent with previous estimates. We conclude that continuous respiratory monitoring is optimal for the safe administration of PCA, because any RD event can progress to respiratory arrest if undetected. Better alarm algorithms must be implemented to reduce the frequent alarms triggered by threshold criteria for RD.

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