Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2008 Jan;65(1):43-53. Epub 2007 Jul 23.

Neural stem cell self-renewal.

Author information

1
Neuroscience Division, Center of Gene Expression and Drug Discovery, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA. yshi@coh.org

Abstract

Two fundamental properties of stem cells are their ability to self-renew and to differentiate. Self-renewal is an integration of proliferation control with the maintenance of an undifferentiated state. Stem cell self-renewal is regulated by the dynamic interplay between transcription factors, epigenetic control, microRNA (miRNA) regulators, and cell-extrinsic signals from the microenvironment in which stem cells reside. Recent progress in defining specific roles for cell-intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors in regulating stem cell self-renewal starts to unfold the multilayered regulatory networks. This review focuses on cell-intrinsic regulators, including orphan nuclear receptor TLX, polycomb transcriptional repressor Bmi1, high-mobility-group DNA binding protein Sox2, basic helix-loop-helix Hes genes, histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling proteins, and small RNA modulators, as well as cell-extrinsic signaling molecules, such as Wnt, Notch, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), TGFalpha, EGF, and FGF. Unraveling the mechanisms by which neural stem cells renew themselves will provide insights into both basic neurosciences and clinical applications of stem cell-based cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID:
17644000
PMCID:
PMC2235812
DOI:
10.1016/j.critrevonc.2007.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center