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Hum Reprod. 2007 Sep;22(9):2377-81. Epub 2007 Jul 19.

Azoospermic HIV-1 infected patients wishing to have children: proposed strategy to reduce HIV-1 transmission risk during sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: Case Report.

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Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Research Group on Human Fertility, EA 3694, Toulouse, France.



To date, assisted reproductive technology (ART) with sperm washing is offered to serodiscordant couples with an human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected male partner in order to have a child while reducing the risk of transmission to the woman. However, ART programmes are not possible if the man is azoospermic. We report here the first birth following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using frozen epididymal spermatozoa obtained after surgical sperm retrieval in a HIV-1 infected man with obstructive azoospermia. METHODS; Sperm obtained by micro-epididymal sperm aspiration was frozen after density gradient preparation and tested for HIV-RNA and DNA. ICSI with frozen sperm was performed.


A twin pregnancy was obtained following ICSI. Two healthy girls were born. Maternal HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 serology were negative during pregnancy and at delivery.


This case report demonstrates that ART is possible in azoospermic HIV-1 infected men. On the basis of current knowledge, we propose a strategy to reduce HIV-1 transmission risk during sperm retrieval and ICSI in couples where the man is HIV-1 infected and azoospermic.

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