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J Appl Psychol. 2007 Jul;92(4):993-1005.

Managerial modes of influence and counterproductivity in organizations: a longitudinal business-unit-level investigation.

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Department of Management and Organization, Smeal College of Business, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Campus, PA, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Appl Psychol. 2008 Mar;93(2):328.


The authors studied the effect of 3 modes of managerial influence (managerial oversight, ethical leadership, and abusive supervision) on counterproductivity, which was conceptualized as a unit-level outcome that reflects the existence of a variety of intentional and unintentional harmful employee behaviors in the unit. Counterproductivity was represented by an objective measure of food loss in a longitudinal study of 265 restaurants. After prior food loss and alternative explanations (e.g., turnover, training, neighborhood income) were controlled for, results indicated that managerial oversight and abusive supervision significantly influenced counterproductivity in the following periods, whereas ethical leadership did not. Counterproductivity was also found to be negatively related to both restaurant profitability and customer satisfaction in the same period and to mediate indirect relationships between managerial influences and distal unit outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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