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Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2007 Jul;20(3):244-8.

Targeted therapy for renal cell carcinoma: a new treatment paradigm.

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Genitourinary Oncology Program, Department of Oncology, Baylor Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.


Metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer has traditionally been treated with cytokines (interferon or interleukin-2). Improved understanding of biology has engendered novel targeted therapeutic agents that have altered the natural history of this disease. The vascular endothelial growth factor and its related receptor and the mTOR signal transduction pathway have particularly been exploited. Sunitinib malate, sorafenib tosylate, temsirolimus, and bevacizumab have improved clinical outcomes in randomized trials. Other multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (lapatinib, axitinib, pazopanib) and antiangiogenic agents (VEGF Trap, lenalidomide) have also demonstrated activity in early studies. Combinations of these agents are being evaluated. The future of the therapy of renal cancer appears promising owing to the efficacy of these novel agents.

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