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Antiviral Res. 2007 Oct;76(1):68-74. Epub 2007 Jun 21.

Effects of apricitabine and other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on replication of mitochondrial DNA in HepG2 cells.

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Primagen, Meibergdreef 59, 1105 BA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Several nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are associated with mitochondrial toxicity resulting from inhibition of DNA polymerase-gamma. This study compared the effects on mitochondrial DNA of apricitabine (previously referred to as AVX754 or SPD754), a novel cytidine analogue under development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, and other reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Human HepG2 hepatoblastoma were cultured for up to 16 days with test compounds at concentrations of 0.3-300 microM. Mitochondrial DNA replication was assessed by means of a duplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique, which measures the ratio of the number of mitochondrial DNA copies to the number of genomic DNA copies. Apricitabine and tenofovir had no effect on the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, alovudine, zalcitabine, didanosine and stavudine markedly reduced mitochondrial DNA content, whereas abacavir, emtricitabine, lamivudine and zidovudine produced slight increases in mitochondrial DNA, which may reflect an adaptive cellular response to mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that apricitabine shows a favorable mitochondrial toxicity profile, which is important for long-term clinical use. Further studies are warranted to define the clinical implications of these findings.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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