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J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Aug 1;129(30):9429-38. Epub 2007 Jul 11.

Fluorescence, XPS, and TOF-SIMS surface chemical state image analysis of DNA microarrays.

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National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1750, USA.


Performance improvements in DNA-modified surfaces required for microarray and biosensor applications rely on improved capabilities to accurately characterize the chemistry and structure of immobilized DNA molecules on micropatterned surfaces. Recent innovations in imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) now permit more detailed studies of micropatterned surfaces. We have exploited the complementary information provided by imaging XPS and imaging TOF-SIMS to detail the chemical composition, spatial distribution, and hybridization efficiency of amine-terminated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bound to commercial polyacrylamide-based, amine-reactive microarray slides, immobilized in both macrospot and microarray diagnostic formats. Combinations of XPS imaging and small spot analysis were used to identify micropatterned DNA spots within printed DNA arrays on slide surfaces and quantify DNA elements within individual microarray spots for determination of probe immobilization and hybridization efficiencies. This represents the first report of imaging XPS of DNA immobilization and hybridization efficiencies for arrays fabricated on commercial microarray slides. Imaging TOF-SIMS provided distinct analytical data on the lateral distribution of DNA within single array microspots before and after target hybridization. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to TOF-SIMS imaging datasets demonstrated that the combination of these two techniques provides information not readily observable in TOF-SIMS images alone, particularly in identifying species associated with array spot nonuniformities (e.g., "halo" or "donut" effects often observed in fluorescence images). Chemically specific spot images were compared to conventional fluorescence scanned images in microarrays to provide new information on spot-to-spot DNA variations that affect current diagnostic reliability, assay variance, and sensitivity.

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