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J Hazard Mater. 2008 Feb 28;151(1):213-20. Epub 2007 May 31.

The adsorption kinetics and removal of cationic dye, Toluidine Blue O, from aqueous solution with Turkish zeolite.

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Department of Chemistry Education, Dokuz Eylul University, Buca-Izmir, Turkey.


Clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, was investigated as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the adsorption of Toluidine Blue O (TBO) from its aqueous solution. The effect of parameters such as the initial concentration of TBO, the solution of pH, contact time, temperature and particle size on the TBO adsorption was examined. The adsorption rate data were analysed according to the first and second-order kinetic models. Kinetic studies show that adsorption of TBO on clinoptilolite was fitted to the second-order adsorption model with two-step diffusion process. The activation energies for TBO adsorption on clinoptilolite for the first and second diffusion processes were 8.72 kJ mol(-1) and 19.02 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite for TBO was 2.1x10(-4) mol g(-1) at solution pH of 11.0.

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