Send to

Choose Destination
Semin Immunopathol. 2007 Apr;29(1):15-26.

Toll-like receptors in the skin.

Author information

Division of Dermatology and Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Center for Health Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern-recognition receptors involved in host defense against a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Activation of TLRs leads to the production of cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides, and upregulation costimulatory and adhesion molecules involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs are expressed on a variety of cell types found in the skin, including keratinocytes and Langerhans cells in the epidermis, resident and trafficking immunesystem cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and mast cells in the dermis, endothelial cells of the skin microvasculature, and skin stromal cells such as fibroblasts and adipocytes. There have been an increasing number of reports demonstrating that TLRs play a key role in cutaneous host defense mechanisms against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. In addition, TLRs have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory skin diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center