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Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;41(8):688-96.

Parental and family factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwanese children.

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Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei.



The present study aimed to examine the association between attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style and perceived family support, and the child's interaction with parents and behavioural problems at home in Taiwan.


The sample included 375 medicated pediatric patients with DSM-IV ADHD, and 750 school controls selected based on the age and gender structures of the ADHD group. Mothers reported on the Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve, and the Home Behaviours of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents.


Mothers of children with ADHD reported greater psychological distress and perceived less support from their families than did mothers of controls. Moreover, mothers of children with ADHD were less affectionate and more overprotective and controlling toward their children than were mothers of controls. This difference was more apparent in boys than in girls. Children with ADHD were less likely to interact with their parents, yet demonstrated more severe behavioural problems at home.


Although the Taiwanese children with ADHD were under treatment with methylphenidate, they and their families still encountered a variety of difficulties in interaction, support, and communication with each other. Therefore, the parental approach should be integrated into the medication treatment for ADHD in Taiwan.

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