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J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 7;282(36):26245-56. Epub 2007 Jul 6.

A nuclear export sequence located on a beta-strand in fibroblast growth factor-1.

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Centre for Cancer Biomedicine, Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Montebello, University of Oslo, 0310 Oslo, Norway.


Receptor-bound and endocytosed fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is able to cross the vesicle membrane and translocate to cytosol and nucleus. This suggests an intracellular role of FGF-1, which also signals by activating transmembrane FGF receptors. Phosphorylation of internalized FGF-1 by nuclear protein kinase C delta induces rapid export from the nuclei by a leptomycin B-sensitive pathway. In the present work, we have searched for and identified a Leu-rich nuclear export sequence (NES) at the C terminus of FGF-1 required for its nuclear export and able to confer nuclear export activity to a reporter protein in an in vivo system. Mutants where hydrophobic amino acids within the NES were exchanged for alanine exhibited reduced or abolished nuclear export. As demonstrated in co-immunoprecipitation experiments, a complex containing FGF-1, exportin-1, and its co-factor Ran-GTP, was formed in vitro. Formation of this complex in vivo was demonstrated by a peroxisomal targeting assay. Formation of the FGF-1-exportin-1-Ran-GTP complex in vitro as well as nuclear export of FGF-1 in vivo was dependent on phosphorylation of FGF-1, and it was abolished by leptomycin B. The FGF-1 NES was found to be situated along a beta-strand, which has not been reported before, since NESs usually are alpha-helical.

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