Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007 Apr;26(4):321-31.

Animal models of chronic pesticide neurotoxicity.

Author information

  • 1Neurotoxicology Division/NHEERL/ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.


There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fact, as short as five days and rarely longer than three months. Furthermore, routes of administration range from subcutaneous to dietary. Doses used in many of the studies produce signs of acute or overt toxicity. In contrast, human symptoms have been reported following exposures that are prolonged and often without obvious toxic effects. A survey of the literature was conducted to identify rodent studies with neurobehavioral and neurophysiological endpoints of pesticide exposures lasting 30 days or longer. This survey indicated that the majority of studies concentrate on cholinesterase inhibitors (organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides). Various neuromotor, cholinergic, physiological, affective and cognitive disorders were reported at doses producing cholinesterase inhibition; however, there were a fewer effects at non-inhibiting doses. Other classes of pesticides produced similar effects, with the exception of cholinergic signs. In many studies, the changes were subtle, which may correspond to the nonspecific changes in psychomotor and cognitive function reported in humans. It appears, then, that the data from animal and human pesticide exposures are generally comparable, but the specific outcomes are influenced by many experimental differences. Future research should concentrate on analogous exposures and outcomes to facilitate interpretation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center