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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar-Apr;85(3-4):476-82.

Intracoronary boluses of adenosine and sodium nitroprusside in combination reverses slow/no-reflow during angioplasty: a clinical scenario of ischemic preconditioning.

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The Heart Care Clinic, Department of Pharmacology, L M College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, India.


No or slow reflow following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), despite the presence of a patent epicardial vessel, is a serious complication resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we have evaluated the combination therapy of adenosine and sodium nitroprusside administered as sequential intracoronary (IC) boluses on no-reflow during PCI. Seventy-five high risk acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent PCI with evidence of initial less than TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) III flow or developed deterioration in TIMI flow during the procedure were randomized to prophylactic administration of multiple boluses of IC saline solution, adenosine (12 microg/bolus) or the combination of adenosine (12 microg/bolus) and sodium nitroprusside (50 microg/bolus), sequentially. Assessment of TIMI and the TMP (tissue myocardial perfusion) grade was done and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were assessed at the end of 6 months. Slow or no-reflow was persistent in 70% patients receiving saline solution, 31% patients receiving adenosine, and 4% patient receiving the combination. IC injection with saline solution did not produce improvement in TIMI flow or TMP grade. IC injection with combination resulted in greater improvement of TIMI flow and TMP grade. The crossover of patients with no-reflow in saline solution group or adenosine with combination treatment was associated with reestablishment of TIMI II in 4 and TIMI III in 20 patients. Our data suggest that combination therapy of adenosine and nitroprusside is safe and provides better improvement in coronary flow and MACE as compared with IC adenosine alone in cases of impaired flow during coronary interventions.

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