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Dev Cell. 2007 Jul;13(1):43-56.

SNX9 couples actin assembly to phosphoinositide signals and is required for membrane remodeling during endocytosis.

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Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.


Multiple modes of endocytosis require actin-dependent remodeling of the plasma membrane; however, neither the factors linking these processes nor their mechanisms of action are understood. The sorting nexin, SNX9, localizes to clathrin-coated pits where it interacts with dynamin and functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that SNX9 also localizes to actin-rich structures implicated in fluid-phase uptake, including tubular membranes containing GPI-anchored proteins and dorsal membrane ruffles. Moreover, we show that SNX9 is critical for dorsal ruffle formation and for clathrin-independent, actin-dependent fluid-phase endocytosis. In vitro, SNX9 directly associates with N-WASP, an Arp2/3 complex activator, and stimulates N-WASP/Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly. SNX9-stimulated actin polymerization is greatly enhanced by PI(4,5)P(2)-containing liposomes, due in part to PI(4,5)P(2)-induced SNX9 oligomerization. These results suggest a mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of N-WASP-dependent actin assembly and implicate SNX9 in directly coupling actin dynamics to membrane remodeling during multiple modes of endocytosis.

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