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Pediatr Cardiol. 2007 Sep-Oct;28(5):363-71. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

Gene polymorphisms of TNF-alpha(-308), IL-10(-1082), IL-6(-174), and IL-1Ra(VNTR) related to susceptibility and severity of rheumatic heart disease.

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Pediatric Genetics Unit, Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt.


Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an inflammatory disease of the heart tissues caused by interactive immune, genetic, and environmental factors. The objective of this study is to test for the association of polymorphisms related to cytokine genes with susceptibility and severity of RHD among affected children from the Nile Delta region of Egypt. The study included 50 children with chronic RHD (29 males and 21 females), with a mean age of 12.2 years, in addition to 98 healthy unrelated controls. Cases were further classified on the basis of echocardiographic findings into those with only mitral valve disease (MVD) or multivalvular lesions (MVLs) and also as mild, moderate, or severe valve lesions. For all cases and controls, DNA was extracted and amplified using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha(-308 )G/A, interleukin (IL)-10(-1082 )G/A, and IL-6(-174 )G/C as well as a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in intron 2 of the IL-1Ra gene. All cases showed a significantly higher frequency of homozygous genotypes of TNF-alpha(-308 )A/A [odds ratio (OR) = 5.7, p < 0.001], IL-10(-1082) A/A (OR = 3.1, p < 0.05), IL-10(-1082) G/G (OR = 5.2, p < 0.05), and IL-1Ra A1/A1 (OR = 2.2, p < 0.05). Cases with MVD showed higher frequencies of genotypes TNF-alpha(-308 )A/A, G/G; IL-10(-1082) G/G; and IL-1Ra(VNTR) A1/A1 (p < 0.05). Cases with MVL showed a significantly higher frequency of homozygous A/A genotype of both TNF-alpha(-308 )(OR = 10.6, p < 0.05) and IL-10(-1082) (OR = 5.2, p < 0.05). The same was observed for cases with severe valve lesions. On the other hand, all studied groups showed significantly lower frequency of heterozygous genotypes of TNF-alpha(-308 )G/A, IL-10(-1082) G/A, and IL-1Ra(VNTR) A1/A2. No significant difference was found regarding the frequency of IL-6(-174 )G/C polymorphisms in total cases or subgroups compared to controls (p > 0.05). Predisposition to RHD is influenced by genetic factors including cytokine gene polymorphisms, with possible susceptibility to severe disease with multivalvular affection among cases with composite polymorphism (TNF-alpha(-308 )A/A and IL-10(-1082) A/A) and (TNF-alpha(-308 )A/A and IL-10(-1082) G/G).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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