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Vaccine. 2007 Aug 14;25(33):6257-70. Epub 2007 Jun 15.

Cost-effectiveness of HPV 16, 18 vaccination in Brazil.

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Department of Health Policy and Management, Program in Health Decision Science, Harvard School of Public Health, 718 Huntington Avenue, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America.


We use an empirically calibrated model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Brazil, a country with a high cervical cancer burden. Assuming 70% coverage, HPV 16, 18 vaccination of adolescent girls is expected to reduce the lifetime risk of cancer by approximately 42.7% (range, 33.2-53.5%); screening three times per lifetime is expected to reduce risk by 21.9-30.7% depending on the screening test, and a combined approach of vaccination and screening is expected to reduce cancer risk by a mean of 60.8% (range, 52.8-70.1%). In Brazil; provided the cost per vaccinated woman is less than I$ 25, implying a per dose cost of approximately I$ 5, vaccination before age 12, followed by screening three times per lifetime between ages 35 and 45, would be considered very cost-effective using the country's per capita gross domestic product as a cost-effectiveness threshold. Assuming a coverage rate of 70%, this strategy would be expected to prevent approximately 100,000 cases of invasive cervical cancer over a 5-year period. Vaccination strategies identified as cost-effective may be unaffordable in countries with similar socioeconomic profiles as Brazil without assistance; these results can provide guidance to the global community by identifying health investments of highest priority and with the greatest promise.

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