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Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2007 Jul;16(3):639-51, x.

Systemic and regional nonsurgical therapy--what is the optimal strategy for metastatic neuroendocrine cancer?

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California, UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, A-724, San Francisco, CA 94143-1932, USA.


A multidisciplinary team is essential for the optimal management of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. In this article, the systemic and regional nonsurgical therapeutic options for metastatic neuroendocrine cancers are discussed. In particular, the roles of biotherapy, chemotherapy, and hepatic artery embolization/chemoembolization are reviewed. A proposed treatment algorithm is provided with the aim of providing clinicians with a useful framework for managing these challenging patients. Finally, the rationale for promising investigational therapies is described.

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