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Nutr Hosp. 1991 Sep-Oct;6(5):267-75.

[Artificial nutrition in kidney failure].

[Article in Spanish]

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Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital del Aire, Madrid, España.


Renal failure in itself generates a state of malnutrition, due to three main causes: inadequate ingestion (anorexia, vomiting or diet insufficiencies), the existence of catabolic factors (proteins, acidosis, PTH) and extrarenal depuration (which provokes a lack of amino acids and vitamins). Artificial nutrition constitutes a series of measures that can be adopted to act upon each of the above causes. Adequate ingestion compared to inadequate ingestion can be performed orally (especially in chronic renal failure) by parenteral administration (preferable in acute renal failure) and enteral administration (complementary in both cases). The quantity and quality of adequate nutrients is non-dependent on the method of administration; 500 ml, of water should be administered plus diuresis, plus loss from other tracts; the mineral intake of sodium, potassium and phosphorus should be restricted; in the case of vitamins, these should be administered, especially the B and D complexes; there should be sufficient calories to constitute a hypercaloric diet (from 30-50 kg/day), at least 50% in the form of carbohydrates (hypertonic glucose, if administered intravenously, and dextrinolmaltose or starch if administered through the digestive tract) and at least 40% in the form of lipids (preferably of vegetable origin, rich in non-saturated fatty acids); proteins are the mainstay of nutrition in renal failure; thus, with a normal renal function or in dialysis, a dose of 1 g/kg/day is recommended; in chronic renal failure, 0.5 g/kg/day; in cases of renal failure not on dialysis, 0.3 g/kg/day, supplemented by essential amino acids or cetoacids (the effectiveness of the latter is still in dispute).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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