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Intern Med. 2007;46(13):933-6. Epub 2007 Jul 2.

Influence of physical fitness and smoking on the coagulation system in hypertensive patients: effect on prothrombin fragment F1+2.

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Internal Medicine Section, Yokohama City Sports Medical Center, Yokohama.



Recently, prothrombin fragment F1+2 was shown to be a sensitive direct marker of thrombin formation. We examined the effect of lifestyle (including physical activity) on prothrombin fragment F1+2 levels.


Using the results of a questionnaire, the subjects were classified into groups on the basis of multiple medications, smoking, exercise, and drinking alcohol. The prothrombin fragment F1+2 levels were compared between each pair of groups and differences were analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Correlations between each parameter and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as with prothrombin fragment F1+2, were examined by multiple regression analysis. Patients The subjects were 109 patients who had essential hypertension without a past history of thrombotic events


Smokers (1.47 +/- 0.75 vs 0.98 +/- 0.46 nmol/L, p<0.0001), and those without regular exercise (1.22 +/- 0.59 vs 0.68 +/- 0.30 nmol/L, p<0.0001) had higher levels of prothrombin fragment F1+2. Age, lack of exercise, and smoking were significant predictors of a high concentration of prothrombin fragment F1+2. Of the smokers, the patient with a regular exercise had low F1+2 compared with those without regular exercise (0.75 +/- 0.20 vs 2.01 +/- 0.49 nmol/L, p<0.0001.


In patients with essential hypertension, age, smoking, and lack of regular exercise may increase the risk of thrombosis. Even in smokers, a regular exercise routine may reduce the tendency towards thrombus formation.

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