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Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jul;56(7):2449-54.

C1D is a major autoantibody target in patients with the polymyositis-scleroderma overlap syndrome.

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Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.



To assess whether the recently discovered exosome-associated proteins MPP6, C1D, KIAA0052/hMtr4, hSki2, and hSki8 are targeted by autoantibodies, and to determine whether these autoantibodies are accompanied by antibodies directed to the established exosome-associated autoantigens PM-Scl-75 and PM-Scl-100.


Complementary DNAs encoding the recently identified human exosome-associated proteins were expressed as His-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells. Sera obtained from patients with several different autoimmune diseases were analyzed for the presence of autoantibodies directed to these proteins, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA data obtained for C1D were confirmed by Western blot analysis, using recombinant C1D.


All exosome-associated proteins were found to be targeted by autoantibodies, although the frequency with which such antibodies occurred in patient sera was relatively low, with the exception of anti-C1D antibodies. Autoantibodies recognizing C1D were detected in 7 of 30 patients (23%) with the polymyositis (PM)-scleroderma overlap syndrome; this frequency was similar to the frequencies for the established autoantigens PM-Scl-75c (27%) and PM-Scl-100 (23%). Importantly, several patients with the PM-scleroderma overlap syndrome had anti-C1D antibodies but no anti-PM-Scl antibodies. Anti-C1D autoantibodies were observed in only 2 of 204 patients with other diseases, including PM, dermatomyositis, and scleroderma.


Our results demonstrate that the recently identified exosome-associated protein C1D is a major autoantigen in patients with the PM-scleroderma overlap syndrome and suggest that the use of recombinant C1D as an autoantibody target may aid in diagnosis of the PM-scleroderma overlap syndrome.

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