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Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jul;43(11):1731-40. Epub 2007 Jun 26.

Food, nutrient and heterocyclic amine intake and the risk of bladder cancer.

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Research Unit, University Hospital of Canary Islands, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.


Fruit and vegetable intake has been linked to bladder cancer risk; however, evidence for other foods or specific dietary factors is inconclusive. The association between diet and bladder cancer risk was evaluated among 912 incident bladder cancer cases and 873 controls in Spain. Data were consistent with a reduced bladder cancer risk associated with high fruit intake; however, the association was significant only among current smokers (OR (95% CI) for 5th versus 1st quintile: 0.5 (0.3-0.9), p trend=0.009). Evaluation of food subgroups showed significant inverse associations with high intakes of berries, Liliaceae vegetables and yellow-orange vegetables. The latter association was stronger among individuals with the GSTM1 present than the null genotype (0.4 (0.2, 0.7) and 0.9 (0.6, 1.3), respectively; p for interaction=0.04). Meat or fish intake, their cooking methods or level of doneness, or heterocyclic amine intakes were not significantly associated with risk. Intake of folate, other B-vitamins (B12, B6, B2) and retinol was also associated with a reduced risk, the strongest associations being for vitamin B6 (0.6 (0.4, 0.8) p trend=0.0006) and retinol (0.6 (0.4-0.9) p trend=0.004). Our findings indicate that fruit and vegetable intake, as well as B-vitamin and retinol intake might be associated with a reduced bladder cancer risk.

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