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Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Jun;45(6):335-44.

Population model of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban--an oral, direct factor xa inhibitor--in healthy subjects.

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Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacometry, Bayer HealthCare AG, Wuppertal, Germany.



Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) is an oral, direct Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor being developed for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. This analysis aimed to define population models for the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) ofrivaroxaban in healthy males.


Non-linear, mixed-effect modeling was used to analyze rivaroxaban plasma concentration and PD data (FXa activity and clotting tests) from subjects in a phase I, multiple-ascending-dose study. Subjects received 5 mg rivaroxaban once, twice or three times daily, or 10, 20 or 30 mg rivaroxaban twice daily.


The population PK of rivaroxaban were well described by an oral, two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination from the central compartment. Population mean estimates for apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution for the central compartment were 9.2 1/h and 55 1, respectively, with moderate inter-individual variability (17.4% and 30.7%, respectively). Total volume of distribution for rivaroxaban at steady state was approximately 70 1. Residual (unexplained) variability was 25%. FXa activity correlated with rivaroxaban plasma concentrations following an inhibitory Emax model; prothrombin time (PT) and rivaroxaban plasma concentrations correlated with a linear model, with a slope of 4.6 s/(100 microg/1). Inter-individual variability was low for the correlation with PT. The models derived were used to define sampling windows for population PK/PD modeling in Phase II studies.


This analysis confirms that rivaroxaban has predictable, dose-proportional PK and PD. The linear correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and PT suggests that this test might be useful to assess rivaroxaban exposure in patients, if required.

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