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Am J Kidney Dis. 2007 Jul;50(1):69-77.

25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and albuminuria in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98117, USA. deboer@u.washington.edu <deboer@u.washington.edu>

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Albuminuria is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression, end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events, and mortality. Animal studies suggested that vitamin D insufficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of albuminuria.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

15,068 adults participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

PREDICTOR:

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, examined in quartiles.

OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS:

Albuminuria, defined using established sex-specific cutoff values for urine albumin-creatinine ratio (25 to 2,999 mg/g for women, 17 to 2,999 mg/g for men).

RESULTS:

A stepwise increase in the prevalence of albuminuria was observed with decreasing quartiles of vitamin D concentration: 8.9%, 11.5%, 13.7%, and 15.8% (P < 0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, region and season of measurement, smoking status, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, relative risks for albuminuria by decreasing quartile of vitamin D concentration were 1.00 (reference group), 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.37), 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.45), and 1.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.71; P = 0.006). Additionally adjusting for blood pressure and diabetes mellitus, these risks were somewhat attenuated and retained statistical significance.

LIMITATIONS:

The cross-sectional design of this study does not allow demonstration of temporal or causal relationships between vitamin D and albuminuria.

CONCLUSIONS:

Additional studies are needed to clarify the relationship of vitamin D with albuminuria and determine whether vitamin D therapy prevents or improves markers of kidney and cardiovascular disease.

PMID:
17591526
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.04.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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