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Plasmid. 2007 Nov;58(3):205-27. Epub 2007 Jun 27.

Properties of Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1, a member of a widely disseminated family of pheromone-responding, conjugative, virulence elements encoding cytolysin.

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Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, USA.


The 60-kb pAD1 represents a large and widely disseminated family of conjugative, pheromone-responding, virulence plasmids commonly found in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. It encodes a hemolysin/bacteriocin (cytolysin) shown to contribute to virulence in animal models, and the related bacteriocin is active against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. This review summarizes what is currently known about the molecular biology of pAD1, including aspects of its cytolytic, UV-resistance, replication, maintenance, and conjugative properties.

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