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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):H2009-23. Epub 2007 Jun 22.

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress in cardiovascular insulin resistance.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri 65212, USA.


Hypertension commonly occurs in conjunction with insulin resistance and other components of the cardiometabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance plays a significant role in the relationship between hypertension, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. There is accumulating evidence that insulin resistance occurs in cardiovascular and renal tissue as well as in classical metabolic tissues (i.e., skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue). Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and subsequent elevations in angiotensin II and aldosterone, as seen in cardiometabolic syndrome, contribute to altered insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways and reactive oxygen species formation to induce endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This review examines currently understood mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to the metabolic actions of insulin in cardiovascular as well as skeletal muscle tissue.

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