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J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Jul;65(7 Suppl 1):20-32.

Guidelines for flapless surgery.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Oct;66(10):2195-6.


With the introduction of in-office cone beam computed tomography (CT), improved access to conventional CT scanning, and dental implant treatment planning software allowing on-the-spot 3-dimensional evaluations of potential implant sites, the use of "flapless" implant surgery has gained popularity among surgeons. Although the flapless approach was initially suggested for and embraced by novice implant surgeons, the successful use of this approach often requires advanced clinical experience and surgical judgment. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of and indications and contraindications for flapless dental implant surgery, with special emphasis on requirements for establishing or maintaining long-term health and stability of the peri-implant soft tissues. Prerequisites for surgeons wishing to use the flapless tissue punch approach in dental implant surgery are outlined and put into perspective relative to conventional open-flap surgery techniques and other minimally invasive procedures currently used in implant surgery. Procedures for single- and multiple-tooth applications are illustrated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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