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J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2007 Apr;35(3):147-50. Epub 2007 Jun 20.

Maxillofacial fractures in Southern Bulgaria - a retrospective study of 1706 cases.

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Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.


The present retrospective study investigated various types, aetiology, complications and methods of treatment of maxillofacial fractures managed in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.


A total of 1706 patients were studied with 2534 fractures treated between 1994 and 2003. The analysis included data on age and gender of patients, causes and types of fractures (mean number of fractures per patient - 1.48) as well as the treatments used and the associated complications.


Most maxillofacial fractures were sustained by 574 men (age range 21-30 years). The ratio of males to females was 4.6:1. Most fractures were caused by violent assault - 1040 (61%), followed by motor vehicle accidents - 264 (15.5%), fall - 213 (12.5%) and bites from animals - 72 (4%). Fractures of the mandible were sustained by 1261 patients (74%), fractures of the maxilla by 97 (6%), fractures of the zygomatic bone by 277 (16%), nasal fractures by 63 (4%) and multiple fractures by 8 (0.5%). In 1330 (77%) patients the fractures were treated by closed reduction; in 264 patients (16%) by open reduction and fixation, and for the remaining 112 patients (7%) were managed with combined closed and open reduction. The mortality rate was 0.2%, the lethal cases being a result of a combination of severe fractures in the maxillofacial region and trauma to other organs/systems.


The most common cause of traumatic injury in the maxillofacial region in this study sample was assault, predominantly affecting men. The fractures were treated using various methods but mostly by closed reduction plus fixation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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