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Inorg Chem. 2007 Jul 23;46(15):6056-68. Epub 2007 Jun 20.

Copper(I) complex O(2)-reactivity with a N(3)S thioether ligand: a copper-dioxygen adduct including sulfur ligation, ligand oxygenation, and comparisons with all nitrogen ligand analogues.

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Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.


In order to contribute to an understanding of the effects of thioether sulfur ligation in copper-O(2) reactivity, the tetradentate ligands L(N3S) (2-ethylthio-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-yl)methylethanamine) and L(N3S')(2-ethylthio-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-yl)ethylethanamine) have been synthesized. Corresponding copper(I) complexes, [CuI(L(N3S))]ClO(4) (1-ClO(4)), [CuI(L(N3S))]B(C(6)F(5))(4) (1-B(C(6)F(5))(4)), and [CuI(L(N3S'))]ClO(4) (2), were generated, and their redox properties, CO binding, and O(2)-reactivity were compared to the situation with analogous compounds having all nitrogen donor ligands, [CuI(TMPA)(MeCN)](+) and [Cu(I)(PMAP)](+) (TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine; PMAP = bis[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]-(2-pyridyl)methylamine). X-ray structures of 1-B(C(6)F(5))(4), a dimer, and copper(II) complex [Cu(II)(L(N3S))(MeOH)](ClO(4))(2) (3) were obtained; the latter possesses axial thioether coordination. At low temperature in CH(2)Cl(2), acetone, or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), 1 reacts with O(2) and generates an adduct formulated as an end-on peroxodicopper(II) complex [{Cu(II)(L(N3S))}(2)(mu-1,2-O(2)(2-))](2+) (4)){lambda(max) = 530 (epsilon approximately 9200 M(-1) cm(-1)) and 605 nm (epsilon approximately 11,800 M(-1) cm(-1))}; the number and relative intensity of LMCT UV-vis bands vary from those for [{Cu(II)(TMPA)}(2)(O(2)(2-))](2+) {lambda(max) = 524 nm (epsilon = 11,300 M(-1) cm(-1)) and 615 nm (epsilon = 5800 M(-1) cm(-1))} and are ascribed to electronic structure variation due to coordination geometry changes with the L(N3S) ligand. Resonance Raman spectroscopy confirms the end-on peroxo-formulation {nu(O-O) = 817 cm(-1) (16-18O(2) Delta = 46 cm(-1)) and nu(Cu-O) = 545 cm(-1) (16-18O(2) Delta = 26 cm(-1)); these values are lower in energy than those for [{Cu(II)(TMPA)}(2)(O(2)(2-))](2+) {nu(Cu-O) = 561 cm(-1) and nu(O-O) = 827 cm(-1)} and can be attributed to less electron density donation from the peroxide pi* orbitals to the Cu(II) ion. Complex 4 is the first copper-dioxygen adduct with thioether ligation; direct evidence comes from EXAFS spectroscopy {Cu K-edge; Cu-S = 2.4 Angstrom}. Following a [Cu(I)(L(N3S))](+)/O(2) reaction and warming, the L(N3S) thioether ligand is oxidized to the sulfoxide in a reaction modeling copper monooxygenase activity. By contrast, 2 is unreactive toward dioxygen probably due to its significantly increased Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox potential, an effect of ligand chelate ring size (in comparison to 1). Discussion of the relevance of the chemistry to copper enzyme O(2)-activation, and situations of biological stress involving methionine oxidation, is provided.

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