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Clin Ther. 2007 Mar;29(3):450-63.

Efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (NRP-104) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose, parallel-group study.

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  • 1Department of Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.



Lisdexamfetamme dimesylate (LDX) is a therapeutically inactive amphetamine prodrug. It was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day, with a reduced potential for abuse, overdose toxicity, and drug tampering. Following ingestion, the pharmacologically active d-amphetamine molecule is gradually released by rate-limited hydrolysis.


The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and tolerability of LDX in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated in the community, and to characterize the duration of action of LDX compared with placebo.


This Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose, parallel-group study was conducted at 40 centers across the United States. Male and female children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD were randomly assigned to receive LDX 30, 50, or 70 mg with forced-dose titration, or placebo, PO QD for 4 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale Version IV (ADHD-RS-IV), the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPR'), and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study.


Of the 290 randomized patients (201 boys, 89 girls; mean [SD] age, 9 [1.8] years), 230 completed the trial (LDX 30 mg, n=56; LDX 50 mg, n=60; LDX 70 mg, n=60; and placebo, n=54). The most common reasons for study discontinuation (n=60) were lack of efficacy (LDX 30 mg, 1%; LDX 50 mg, 0%; LDX 70 mg, 1 %; and placebo, 17%) and adverse events (AEs) (LDX 30 mg, 9%; LDX 50 mg, 5%; LDX 70 mg, 14%; and placebo, 1%). Significant improvements in ADHD-RS-IV scores were seen with all doses of LDX compared with placebo (all, P<0.001), and in CPRS scores with all LDX doses versus placebo throughout the day (all, P<0.001 for all comparisons). Efficacy was observed by the first week of treatment, and improvements were observed throughout the day up to approximately 6 PM. The most frequently reported AEs among patients receiving LDX were typical of amphetamine products: decreased appetite (39% with active treatment vs 4% with placebo), insomnia (19% vs 3%), upper abdominal pain (12% vs 6%), headache (12% vs 10%), irritability (10% vs 0%), vomiting (9% vs 4%), weight decrease (9% vs 1%), and nausea (6% vs 3%); most were mild to moderate and occurred in the first week.


In this population of children with ADHD, treatment once daily with the prodrug LDX at doses of 30 to 70 mg appeared to be effective and had a tolerability profile similar to those of currently marketed extended-release stimulants.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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