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Anesthesiol Clin. 2007 Jun;25(2):301-19.

Simulation: translation to improved team performance.

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  • 1Johns Hopkins Simulation Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Blalock 904, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.


Traditional medical education has emphasized autonomy, and until recently issues related to teamwork have not been explicitly included in medical curriculum. The Institute of Medicine highlighted that health care providers train as individuals, yet function as teams, creating a gap between training and reality and called for the use of medical simulation to improve teamwork. The aviation industry created a program called Cockpit and later Crew Resource Management that has served as a model for team training programs in medicine. This article reviews important concepts related to teamwork and discusses examples where simulation either could be or has been used to improve teamwork in medical disciplines to enhance patient safety.

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