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J Pak Med Assoc. 2007 May;57(5):235-9.

Frequency of the metabolic syndrome in adult type 2 diabetics presenting to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences.

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Department of General Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.



To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in both genders, in a limited adult type 2 diabetic population presenting to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.


This was a cross sectional study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. During the six months of study period, 106 adult type 2 diabetics were examined and evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the ATP-III criteria. Asian standards for the waist circumference were used.


Out of 106 patients, 91 (85.8%) had metabolic syndrome of whom 95% were females. Abdominal obesity was present in 91% females and 86% males. Low HDL levels were present in all females and 83% males. Seventy eight percent females and 63% males had elevated levels of triglycerides. Hypertension was present in 68% and 73% females and males respectively.


This study showed a very high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in type2 diabetic population. Females were more affected than males in all respects.

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