Send to

Choose Destination
J Mol Evol. 2007 Jul;65(1):23-33. Epub 2007 Jun 12.

TCP transcription factors predate the emergence of land plants.

Author information

CNRS UMR2594/INRA UMR441, Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes Microorganismes, BP 52627 Chemin de borde rouge, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.


TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors identified so far only in angiosperms and shown to be involved in specifying plant morphologies. However, the functions of these proteins remain largely unknown. Our study is the first phylogenetic analysis comparing the TCP genes from higher and lower plants, and it dates the emergence of the TCP family to before the split of the Zygnemophyta. EST database analysis and CODEHOP PCR amplification revealed TCP genes in basal land plant genomes and also in their close freshwater algal relatives. Based on an extensive survey of TCP genes, families of TCP proteins were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana, poplar, rice, club-moss, and moss genomes. The phylogenetic trees indicate a continuous expansion of the TCP family during the diversification of the Phragmoplastophyta and a similar degree of expansion in several angiosperm lineages. TCP paralogues were identified in all genomes studied, and Ks values indicate that TCP genes expanded during genome duplication events. MEME and SIMPLE analyses detected conserved motifs and low-complexity regions, respectively, outside of the TCP domain, which reinforced the previous description of a "mosaic" structure of TCP proteins.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center