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Chemosphere. 2007 Aug;69(1):25-31. Epub 2007 Jun 12.

A proteome analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum after exposure to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D).

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Technical University of Munich, Department for Chemical-Technical Analysis, Research Center for Brewing and Food Quality, Weihenstephaner Steig 23, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.


The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) induces a wide spectrum of toxic responses in living organisms. In this study, we analyzed the stress-induced responses of Corynebacterium glutamicum cells on protein level upon treatment with 2,4-D. For this, growing C. glutamicum cells were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 2,4-D, and changes of the gene expression profiles in comparison to non-exposed organisms were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. 2,4-D induced the over-expression of at least six C. glutamicum proteins, four of which could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. One protein (Cg2521; long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase) was related to the energy metabolism, and two proteins were involved in cell envelope synthesis (Cg2410; glutamine-dependent amidotransferase, and Cg1672; glycosyltransferase). The last induced protein was the ABC type transport system (Cg2695, ATPase component). The newly observed proteins, except for the ABC transport system, were not in general stress-related proteins, but were specifically expressed upon 2,4-D exposure and, therefore, can be used as respective biomarkers. Moreover, since these proteins seem to play a pivotal role in the adaptation of the cell to 2,4-D, they may help to gain deeper insight into the damage mechanisms of 2,4-D induced in the living cell.

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