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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jul;8(7):519-29.

Signal integration in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response.

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  • 1The Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA.


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in its lumen (ER stress) by activating intracellular signal transduction pathways - cumulatively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Together, at least three mechanistically distinct arms of the UPR regulate the expression of numerous genes that function within the secretory pathway but also affect broad aspects of cell fate and the metabolism of proteins, amino acids and lipids. The arms of the UPR are integrated to provide a response that remodels the secretory apparatus and aligns cellular physiology to the demands imposed by ER stress.

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