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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19;104(25):10577-82. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

Pulmonary expression of CXC chemokine ligand 13, CC chemokine ligand 19, and CC chemokine ligand 21 is essential for local immunity to influenza.

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The Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA.


CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), and CCL19 are constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs, where they control the placement of lymphocytes and dendritic cells. However, these chemokines are also inducibly expressed in the lung after influenza infection. Here we show that, in the absence of spleen and lymph nodes, the expression of homeostatic chemokines in the lung is essential for local B and T cell responses to influenza and for the development and organization of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT). Surprisingly, despite the association between local CXCL13 expression and the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissues, the loss of CXCL13 in the lung had minimal impact on either the development or function of iBALT. In contrast, the loss of CCL19 and CCL21 impaired iBALT formation as well as B and T cell responses. These results demonstrate that the local expression of homeostatic chemokines in nonlymphoid organs, such as the lung, plays an important role in protective immune responses.

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